Logistic regression in machine learning is an algorithm for binary classification; this means output is one of the two choices like true/false, 0/1, spam/no-spam, male/female etc. Though the name says Logistic regression, it is actually a classification algorithm, not a regression algorithm.

In order to derive an output as above, from the underlying probabilities, it generally uses the sigmoid function, which has a range of 0 to 1. In other words, it is a linear algorithm with sigmoid function applied on output.

For our demonstration purposes, we will use Bank Note Dataset from UCI machine learning repo.

The first 4 columns in the data set are X input features.

Wavelet Transformed image (continuous) Variance; Wavelet Transformed image (continuous) skewness; Wavelet Transformed image (continuous) curtosis; Image (continuous) Entropy.

The last column is Y, which says whether a given note is authentic (0) or forged (1)

In order to implement this in Keras, we follow the steps below:

- Create X input and Y output;
- Create a Sequential model;
- Add the input layer and a hidden layer with the number of neurons, number of input variables and activation function;
- Add the output layer with the sigmoid function;
- Compile the model; and
- Train the model.

Here is the code. You can play with different hyperparameters to increase accuracy.

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# Logistic regression is a binary classification algorithm # This code shows basic version of it using Keras using # Banknote authentication Data Set from keras.models import Sequential from keras.layers import Dense from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split import numpy # Download Data Set from link below and save as .csv file #https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/machine-learning-databases/00267/data_banknote_authentication.txt seed = numpy.random.seed(7) # Load banknote authentication Data Set dataset = numpy.loadtxt("data_banknote_authentication.csv", delimiter=",") # split data into input (X) and output (Y) variables X = dataset[:,0:4] Y = dataset[:,4] # create model model = Sequential() # first arg is for number of neurons # 2nd arg is for number of input variables model.add(Dense(10, input_dim=4, activation='relu')) model.add(Dense(1, activation='sigmoid')) # As this is binary classification, it is better to use binary_crossentropy loss function (better with output probabilities) # you could also use others like MSE model.compile(loss='binary_crossentropy', optimizer='adam', metrics=['accuracy']) # Fit the model, split into 67% for training and 33% for testing model.fit(X, Y, validation_split=0.33, epochs=15, batch_size=100) |

Here is the sample output.

100/919 [==>………………………] – ETA: 0s – loss: 0.5984 – acc: 0.7700

919/919 [==============================] – 0s 14us/step – loss: 0.5483 – acc: 0.7889 – val_loss: 0.7256 – val_acc: 0.4768

Epoch 11/15

100/919 [==>………………………] – ETA: 0s – loss: 0.5178 – acc: 0.7900

919/919 [==============================] – 0s 14us/step – loss: 0.4934 – acc: 0.8118 – val_loss: 0.7121 – val_acc: 0.4768

Epoch 12/15